M.A. (Martine) Baars

Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences (ESSB)
Erasmus University Rotterdam

My PhD thesis research (NWO PROO grant # 411-07-152) started in 2009 and concerned instructional strategies to improve self-monitoring and regulation of learning to solve problems in primary and secondary education. Next to investigating the accuracy of self-monitoring judgments and regulation choices while learning to solve problems in the classroom, I also investigated how generation tasks such as practice problems, training of monitoring skills and feedback could improve the accuracy of self-monitoring judgments and regulation choices. I used problem-solving tasks from the domain of math, physics and biology which were relevant and realistic in the context of primary and secondary education. I explored the role of cognitive load and task complexity in the process of self-monitoring.

After obtaining my PhD in 2014 I conducted further research on the process of self-monitoring while learning to solve problems by investigating self-explanations given by students while learning, their motivation, affect and cognitive load. I am also involved in the project “Scaffolding self-regulation: Effects on the acquisition of domain-specific skills and self-regulated learning skills”, (NWO-PROO grant # 411-12-015). In this project training monitoring and regulation skills by using video-models is investigated in secondary and higher education. As a supervisor, I am also involved in a research project about open and online education: “Students’ characteristics and their engagement and achievement in open online higher education” at the Centre for Education and Learning (CEL) of the Strategic Alliance of Leiden University, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) and Erasmus University Rotterdam.


  • M.A. Baars, T. van Gog, A.B.H. de Bruin & F. Paas (2014). Effects of problem solving after worked example study on primary school children's monitoring accuracy. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 382-391.
  • M.A. Baars, S. Vink, T. van Gog, A.B.H. De Bruin & F. Paas (2014). Effects of training self-assessment and using assessment standards on retrospective and prospective monitoring of problem solving. Learning and Instruction, 33, 92-107. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.04.004
  • M.A. Baars, S. Visser, T. van Gog, A. de Bruin & F. Paas (2013). Completion of partially worked-out examples as a generation strategy for improving monitoring accuracy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38, 395-406. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.09.001
  • M.A. Baars, T. van Gog, A. De Bruin & F. Paas (2016). Effects of problem solving after worked example study on secondary school children’s monitoring accuracy. Educational Psychology : An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology.
  • S.F. Raaijmakers, M.A. Baars, L. Schaap, F. Paas & T. van Gog (2016). Effects of performance feedback valence on perceptions of invested mental effort. Learning and Instruction.
  • M.G.J. Adriaans, G. Smeets, M.A. Baars & H.T. van der Molen (2013). Betere studieresultaten dankzij `Nominaal is normaal'. TH en MA, 1, 30-34.
  • M.A. Baars & L. Wijnia (2016). Motivational profiles and their relation with task-specific self-regulated learning. Paper presented at EARLI-SIG 16 Metacognition: Nijmegen, the Netherlands..
  • M.A. Baars & L. Wijnia (2016). The will and the skill: Motivatieprofielen en de relatie met het trainen van zelfregulatievaardigheden [The will and the skill: Motivational profiles and their relationship with the training of self-regulatory skills]. Paper presented at the Onderwijs Research Dagen: Rotterdam, the Netherlands.


Visiting address

Office: Mandeville Building T13-40
Burg. Oudlaan 50
3062 PA Rotterdam

Postal address

Postbus 1738
3000 DR Rotterdam

Research Areas

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